Basically, Perry and Magolda theorize college students, ages seventeen to nineteen, are more absolute in their world beliefs. To these students there exists a state of right or wrong. Hence, teachers should not expect students in this age set to challenge ideas or explore new ways of looking at concepts. During their later college years students gradually begin to question authority and come to see that not everything before them is black and white.
Teachers implementing the philosophies of Piaget, Perry, and Baxter set expectations based on cognitive ability.
Resources for Perry and Magolda:
Teachers who implement, or are interested in the Kegan model may find “A Developmental Model of Intercultural Maturity” by Patricia King and Marcia Magolda an interesting read. It can be found in the Journal of College Student Development, Nov/Dec 2005. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3752/is_200511/ai_n15847497
Image: http://www.hno.harvard.edu/gazette/1999/05.27/mm.perry.html (accessed 11/20/07) This is an article commemorating the life of William Graves Perry Jr. He died of pneumonia on January 12, 1998.
http://gsi.berkeley.edu/textonly/resources/learning/perry.html (accessed 11/22/07) This is a great link that elaborates on Perry’s four levels of development. Also, at the bottom of the page, you can find hyperlinks to: Theories of Learning and Teaching Resources.
http://findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Magolda%2C+Marcia+B+Baxter%22 (accessed 11/22/07) This site contains links to nine articles by Magola.
Texts by Perry:
Perry, William G., Jr. Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development in the
College Years: A Scheme.
Perry, William G., Jr. "Cognitive and Ethical Growth: The Making of Meaning,”
in Arthur W. Chickering and Associates, The
Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1981.
Text by Magolda:
Magolda, Marcia B. Baxter. Making Their Own Way: Narratives for Transforming
Higher Education to Promote Self-Development.